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New fossils of Mesopithecus from Hasnot, Pakistan

Khan, M.A., Kelley, J., Flynn, L.J., Babar, M.A., & Jablonski, N.G. (2020). New fossils of Mesopithecus from Hasnot, Pakistan. Journal of Human Evolution, 145, 102818. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102818


Here, we report on a new collection of mostly isolated molars of a colobine monkey from near Hasnot on the Potwar Plateau of Pakistan. The specimens are from three late Miocene localities, with ages constrained to between 7.9 and 7.1 Ma. Morphological and metrical comparisons of the new Hasnot molars with those of previously recognized Mesopithecus species and living Asian colobines lead to the conclusion that the Hasnot colobine is most probably Mesopithecus, but not Mesopithecus pentelicus. The most morphologically distinctive aspect of the Hasnot specimens is the lower third molars, which exhibit large and bulbous protoconids set off by deeply incised mesial buccal and median buccal clefts and large, broad distobuccally placed hypoconulids. Colobine specimens previously recovered from the Potwar Plateau have been assigned to Mesopithecus sivalensis, but because these specimens have not yet been fully described, a detailed comparison with the new Hasnot specimens is not yet possible. For these reasons, we assign the new Hasnot colobine fossils to cf. Mesopithecus sp. Mesopithecus was one of the most widespread and successful of late Miocene primates. As a colobine equipped with features of the molar teeth, limbs, and, presumably, gut enabling it to succeed in more highly seasonal woodland environments, Mesopithecus was able to rapidly disperse into and adapt to the conditions in South Asia brought about by profound climatic and concomitant environmental change during the latest Miocene.

The biology of human hair: A multidisciplinary review

Koch, S.L., Tridico, S.R., Bernard, B.A., Shriver, M.D., & Jablonski, N.G. (2020). The biology of human hair: A multidisciplinary review. American Journal of Human Biology, 32(2), e23316. doi:10.1002/ajhb.23316


In the last century, human scalp hair morphology has been studied from multiple, and sometimes mutually exclusive, perspectives by anthropologists, biologists, geneticists, forensic scientists, and cosmetic scientists. Here, we review and synthesize historical and current research on hair to better understand the scientific basis and biological implications of hair microstructure and morphology. We revisit the origins of existing nomenclature regarding hair morphology and classifications, discuss the currently recognized limitations to hair analysis within the varied scientific disciplines studying hair, point out aspects of hair biology that remain unknown, and the great potential for integrating these diverse perspectives and expertise in future scientific investigations, while highlighting the benefits of combining nondestructive microscopical analysis with chemical and genomic analyses for explicating hair biology. Further, we propose consensus terminology for root growth stages through descriptions and images that will aid in the morphological and microscopical analysis of human scalp hair, thereby reducing confusion and the promulgation of inaccurate information that is presently in the literature.

A cross-cultural exploration on the psychological aspects of skin color aesthetics: Implications for sun-related behaviour

Chen, H.-Y., Robinson, J. K., & Jablonski, N. G. (2020). A cross-cultural exploration on the psychological aspects of skin color aesthetics: Implications for sun-related behaviour. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 10(1), 234-243. doi:10.1093/tbm/ibz063


Sociocultural values toward skin color manifest in daily behaviors, such as sun-seeking behaviors in Euro-American culture and sun-protective behaviors in Chinese culture. However, little research has investigated how attitudes toward skin color affect sun-related behaviors in the face of conflicting cultural values. This study explores how sociocultural contexts shape attitudes toward skin color and sun-related behaviors in three groups of genetically Chinese women, located on a spectrum from predominantly Chinese culture to predominantly Euro-American culture. Using ethnographic and qualitative comparative approaches, interviews were conducted with (a) 15 Chinese women (Mage = 25; SD = 2.73) who grew up in mainland China until at least age 18 years and then moved to the United States, (b) 15 second-generation Chinese Americans (Mage = 20; SD = 1.16) raised in the United States by Chinese parents, and (c) 18 Chinese adoptees (Mage = 21; SD = 1.13) raised in the United States by Euro-American parents. Overall, Chinese women leaned toward Chinese culture, preferred lighter skin, and engaged in more sun-protection practices. Chinese adoptees leaned toward Euro-American culture, preferred tanned skin and sun-seeking behaviors, and experienced more sunburns. Chinese Americans had mixed results, exemplifying a double-bind in adherence to either Euro-American or Chinese cultural values. Findings elucidate the connections between sun-related behaviors and sociocultural backgrounds, especially how embracing Euro-American culture might increase sun exposure and sunburn tendency. Since sun exposure contributes to health outcomes (e.g., skin cancer, vitamin D status, and bone density), these findings have significant implications for public health prevention efforts.

Practical and ethical considerations of using personal DNA tests with middle-school-aged learners

Wright, E.A., Wagner, J.K., Shriver, M.D., Fernandez, J.R., & Jablonski, N.G. (2019). Practical and ethical considerations of using personal DNA tests with middle-school-aged learners. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 104(2), 197-202. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.001


Personalized genetic information is not widely utilized as a resource in learning environments, in part because of concerns about data privacy and the treatment of sensitive personal information. Here we describe the implementation of a curriculum centered on analyzing personalized genetic-ancestry test results during two-week science summer camps for middle-school-aged youth. Our research focused on how the examination of personalized DNA results affected learners’ subsequent perceptions and performance, as measured by in-camp pre- and post-tests and surveys, analysis of voluntary student talk captured by audio and video recordings, and periodic one-on-one post-camp follow-ups. The curriculum was grounded in Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and focused around the central question of “Who am I?” Campers approached this question via guided lessons designed to shed light on their genetic uniqueness, the many attributes of their genotype and phenotype shared with others, their more distant genetic and evolutionary ancestries, and their roles as active agents in the healthy continuation of their lives. Data relevant to these questions came from edited subsets of ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotype-related SNPs from the campers’ genotype results, which their parents had received from a direct-to-consumer vendor. Our approaches to data privacy and the discovery, disclosure, and discussion of sensitive information on paternity, carrier status, and ancestry can be usefully applied and modified for many educational contexts. On the basis of our pilot implementations, we recommend additional and expanded research on how to incorporate personalized genetic ancestry information in a variety of learning contexts.


Sunscreen photoprotection and vitamin D status

Passeron, T., Bouillon, R., Callender, V., Cestari, T.L., Diepgen, T., Green, A.C., . . . Jablonski, N.G., & Young, A.R. (2019). Sunscreen photoprotection and vitamin D status. British Journal of Dermatology, 181(5), 916-931. doi:10.1111/bjd.17992




Global concern about vitamin D deficiency has fuelled debates on photoprotection and the importance of solar exposure to meet vitamin D requirements.


To review the published evidence to reach a consensus on the influence of photoprotection by sunscreens on vitamin D status, considering other relevant factors.


An international panel of 13 experts in endocrinology, dermatology, photobiology, epidemiology and biological anthropology reviewed the literature prior to a 1‐day meeting in June 2017, during which the evidence was discussed. Methods of assessment and determining factors of vitamin D status, and public health perspectives were examined and consequences of sun exposure and the effects of photoprotection were assessed.


A serum level of ≥ 50 nmol L−1 25(OH )D is a target for all individuals. Broad‐spectrum sunscreens that prevent erythema are unlikely to compromise vitamin D status in healthy populations. Vitamin D screening should be restricted to those at risk of hypovitaminosis, such as patients with photosensitivity disorders, who require rigorous photoprotection. Screening and supplementation are advised for this group.


Sunscreen use for daily and recreational photoprotection does not compromise vitamin D synthesis, even when applied under optimal conditions.


Variation in human hair ultrastructure among three biogeographic populations

Koch, S. L., Shriver, M. D., & Jablonski, N. G. (2019). Variation in human hair ultrastructure among three biogeographic populations. Journal of Structural Biology, 205(1), 60-66. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2018.11.008


Human scalp hairs are often examined microscopically to study the variation and diversity among a range of visible morphological traits. In this study, we focused on the ultrastructure of human scalp hair within its keratinized matrix, emphasizing, the density and distribution of melanosomes, variation in cuticle thickness within populations, and the relationship of hair fiber ultrastructure with biogeographic ancestry. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize hair cross-sections and generate micron-scale resolution images for analysis of particle morphology and the layered hair matrix. Our results revealed considerable variation in all parameters examined, including the relationship of ultrastructure to biogeographic ancestry. Among the three metapopulations studied (European, African, and East Asian), we identified hair cross-sectional shape, cuticle dimensions, and melanosome distribution as traits that reveal statistically significant ancestry-related patterns. This study establishes trait patterns in hair morphology and ultrastructure among three biogeographically defined metapopulations to improve the current understanding of human variation in hair form and establish a foundation for future studies on the genetic and developmental bases of phenotypic variation in hair ultrastructure related to genotype.

Acute ultraviolet radiation exposure attenuates nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in the cutaneous microvasculature of healthy humans

Wolf, S.T., Stanhewicz, A.E., Jablonski, N.G., & Kenney, W.L. (2018). Acute ultraviolet radiation exposure attenuates nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in the cutaneous microvasculature of healthy humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 125(4), 1232-1237. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00501.2018


Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) contributes to normal healthy function of the human cutaneous microvasculature. Bioavailability of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) is important for the production of NO. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, specifically UVB, may deplete cutaneous 5-MTHF, thereby reducing NO-mediated microvascular function. Our findings suggest that acute UVB exposure attenuates NO-mediated vasodilation of the cutaneous microvasculature via degradation of 5-MTHF. These findings advance our understanding of the potential negative health impacts of acute UV exposure.

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk

Hlusko, L.J., Carlson, J.P., Chaplin, G., Elias, S.A., Hoffecker, J.F., Huffman, M., Jablonski, N.G., Monson, T.A., O'Rourke, D.H., Pilloud, M.A., & Scott, G.R. (2018). Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(19), E4426-E4432. doi:10.1073/pnas.1711788115


Because of the ubiquitous adaptability of our material culture, some human populations have occupied extreme environments that intensified selection on existing genomic variation. By 32,000 years ago, people were living in Arctic Beringia, and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 28,000–18,000 y ago), they likely persisted in the Beringian refugium. Such high latitudes provide only very low levels of UV radiation, and can thereby lead to dangerously low levels of biosynthesized vitamin D. The physiological effects of vitamin D deficiency range from reduced dietary absorption of calcium to a compromised immune system and modified adipose tissue function. The ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene has a range of pleiotropic effects, including sweat gland density, incisor shoveling, and mammary gland ductal branching. The frequency of the human-specific EDAR V370A allele appears to be uniquely elevated in North and East Asian and New World populations due to a bout of positive selection likely to have occurred circa 20,000 y ago. The dental pleiotropic effects of this allele suggest an even higher occurrence among indigenous people in the Western Hemisphere before European colonization. We hypothesize that selection on EDAR V370A occurred in the Beringian refugium because it increases mammary ductal branching, and thereby may amplify the transfer of critical nutrients in vitamin D-deficient conditions to infants via mothers’ milk. This hypothesized selective context for EDAR V370A was likely intertwined with selection on the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster because it is known to modulate lipid profiles transmitted to milk from a vitamin D-rich diet high in omega-3 fatty acids.

Egg white or sun-kissed: A cross-cultural exploration of skin color and women's leisure behavior

Chen, H.-Y., Yarnal, C., Chick, G., & Jablonski, N. (2018). Egg white or sun-kissed: A cross-cultural exploration of skin color and women's leisure behavior. Sex Roles, 78, 255-271. doi:10.1007/s11199-017-0785-4


The present study explores how culture-based meanings and values toward skin color, which are associated with women’s body image ideals and gender-role expectations, profoundly influence women’s leisure behaviors. Using in-depth interviews with East Asian, Asian American, and Euro-American women (n = 43), results revealed how leisure behaviors are tied to cultural perceptions of skin color. People from different cultural backgrounds construct meanings and values pertaining to skin color, including beauty-related standards, social class, gender roles, and lifestyles. Culture-based values, such as the preference for tanned skin among Euro-Americans and for lighter skin among East Asians, affect a wide range of daily behaviors. These behaviors include conscious as well as subtle daily decision-making regarding sun-seeking, sun-avoidance, and sun-protection behaviors; indoor versus outdoor leisure participation; and appearance modifications. The study’s results add knowledge to how perceptions and attitudes toward skin color and appearance manifest in women's daily behavior in general and leisure behavior in particular. In addition, the current study shows how individual behaviors reflect cultural meanings and values toward body image, specifically skin color, by emphasizing the links between cultural values and women’s day-to-day lives.

The biology of color

Cuthill, I.C., Allen, W.L., Arbuckle, K., Caspers, B., Chaplin, G., Hauber, M.E., . . . Caro, T. (2017). The biology of color. Science, 357(6350). doi:10.1126/science.aan0221


Animals live in a colorful world, but we rarely stop to think about how this color is produced and perceived, or how it evolved. Cuthill et al. review how color is used for social signals between individual animals and how it affects interactions with parasites, predators, and the physical environment. New approaches are elucidating aspects of animal coloration, from the requirements for complex cognition and perception mechanisms to the evolutionary dynamics surrounding its development and diversification.

The colours of humanity: The evolution of pigmentation in the human lineage

Jablonski, N. G., & Chaplin, G. (2017). The colours of humanity: The evolution of pigmentation in the human lineage. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372(1724). doi:10.1098/rstb.2016.0349


Humans are a colourful species of primate, with human skin, hair and eye coloration having been influenced by a great variety of evolutionary forces throughout prehistory. Functionally naked skin has been the physical interface between the physical environment and the human body for most of the history of the genus Homo, and hence skin coloration has been under intense natural selection. From an original condition of protective, dark, eumelanin-enriched coloration in early tropical-dwelling Homo and Homo sapiens, loss of melanin pigmentation occurred under natural selection as Homo sapiens dispersed into non-tropical latitudes of Africa and Eurasia. Genes responsible for skin, hair and eye coloration appear to have been affected significantly by population bottlenecks in the course of Homo sapiens dispersals. Because specific skin colour phenotypes can be created by different combinations of skin colour–associated genetic markers, loss of genetic variability due to genetic drift appears to have had negligible effects on the highly redundant genetic ‘palette’ for the skin colour. This does not appear to have been the case for hair and eye coloration, however, and these traits appear to have been more strongly influenced by genetic drift and, possibly, sexual selection. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Animal Coloration: Production, Perception, Function and Application’.

The anthropology of human scalp hair

Dadzie, O.E., Lasisi, T., & Jablonski, N.G. (2017). The anthropology of human scalp hair. In N. A. Vashi & H. I. Maibach (Eds.), Dermatoanthropology of Ethnic Skin and Hair (pp. 315-330). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-53961-4_18


Hair is predominantly a proteinaceous fiber that originates from hair follicles located within the subcutis and/or dermis of the skin. It is one of the defining features of mammals, serving important functions, such as thermoregulation and endothermy. Among mammals, humans are exceptional in lacking a full covering of body hair. Instead the growth of terminal hairs is limited to specific body regions, such as the scalp, axillae, and groin. Our aim in this chapter is to provide an overview of the anthropology of human scalp hair. We will explore approaches to the study of variation in human scalp hair phenotypes, as well as the genetic and evolutionary basis of this diversity. The biology of human scalp hair, with emphasis on quantitative and qualitative differences among populations, as well as impact on hair grooming practices will also be discussed.

Youth violence: What we know and what we need to know

Bushman, B.J., Newman, K., Calvert, S.L., Downey, G., Dredze, M., Gottfredson, M., Jablonski, N.G., Masten, A.S., Morrill, C., Neill, D.B., Romer, D., Webster, D.W. (2016). Youth violence: What we know and what we need to know. American Psychologist, 71(1), 17-39. doi:10.1037/a0039687


School shootings tear the fabric of society. In the wake of a school shooting, parents, pediatricians, policymakers, politicians, and the public search for “the” cause of the shooting. But there is no single cause. The causes of school shootings are extremely complex. After the Sandy Hook Elementary School rampage shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, we wrote a report for the National Science Foundation on what is known and not known about youth violence. This article summarizes and updates that report. After distinguishing violent behavior from aggressive behavior, we describe the prevalence of gun violence in the United States and age-related risks for violence. We delineate important differences between violence in the context of rare rampage school shootings, and much more common urban street violence. Acts of violence are influenced by multiple factors, often acting together. We summarize evidence on some major risk factors and protective factors for youth violence, highlighting individual and contextual factors, which often interact. We consider new quantitative “data mining” procedures that can be used to predict youth violence perpetrated by groups and individuals, recognizing critical issues of privacy and ethical concerns that arise in the prediction of violence. We also discuss implications of the current evidence for reducing youth violence, and we offer suggestions for future research. We conclude by arguing that the prevention of youth violence should be a national priority.

Media coverage of the American Psychologist paper:

January 14, 2016 – American Psychological Association
article by Jim Sliwa, Preventing youth gun violence: What we know and still need to know

January 14, 2016 – Medical Xpress
article by Jeff Grabmeier, School shootings and street violence: How they’re alike and different

Quantifying variation in human scalp hair fiber shape and pigmentation

Lasisi, T., Ito, S., Wakamatsu, K., & Shaw, C.N. (2016). Quantifying variation in human scalp hair fiber shape and pigmentation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 160(2), 341-352. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22971




This study aims to evaluate the use of quantitative methods of measuring variation in scalp hair fiber shape and pigmentation and carry out exploratory data analysis on a limited sample of individuals from diverse populations in order to inform future avenues of research for the evolution of modern human hair variation.


Cross-sectional area and shape and average curvature of scalp hair fibers were quantified using ImageJ. Pigmentation was analyzed using chemical methods estimating total melanin content through spectrophotometric methods, and eumelanin and pheomelanin content through HLPC analysis of melanin-specific degradation products.


The initial results reinforced findings from earlier, traditional studies. African and African Diaspora scalp hair was significantly curled, (East) Asian hair was significantly thick, and European hair was significantly lighter in color. However, pigmentation analyses revealed a high level of variability in the melanin content of non-European populations and analysis of curvature found a large range of variation in the average curvature of East African individuals.



Overall, these results suggest the usefulness of chemical methods for the elucidation of nonperceptible differences in scalp hair color and highlight the need for improvements in our assessment and understanding of hair fiber curvature.

Bugs R Us

The Edge 2016 Conversation - What do you consider the most interesting recent [scientific] news? What makes it important?

The Sepia Rainbow: The Fascinating Story of Human Skin 

Penn State Research News article by David Pacchioli

High-dose vitamin D3 reduces deficiency caused by low UVB exposure and limits HIV-1 replication in urban Southern Africans

Coussens, A.K., Naude, C.E., Goliath, R., Chaplin, G., Wilkinson, R.J., and Jablonski, N.G. (2015). High-dose vitamin D3 reduces deficiency caused by low UVB exposure and limits HIV-1 replication in urban Southern Africans. PNAS, 112(26), 8052-8057doi: 10.1073/pnas.1500909112


Cape Town, South Africa, has a seasonal pattern of UVB radiation and a predominantly dark-skinned urban population who suffer high HIV-1 prevalence. This coexistent environmental and phenotypic scenario puts residents at risk for vitamin D deficiency, which may potentiate HIV-1 disease progression. We conducted a longitudinal study in two ethnically distinct groups of healthy young adults in Cape Town, supplemented with vitamin D3 in winter, to determine whether vitamin D status modifies the response to HIV-1 infection and to identify the major determinants of vitamin D status (UVB exposure, diet, pigmentation, and genetics). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority of subjects in winter and in a proportion of individuals in summer, was highly correlated with UVB exposure, and was associated with greater HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood cells. High-dosage oral vitamin D3 supplementation attenuated HIV-1 replication, increased circulating leukocytes, and reversed winter-associated anemia. Vitamin D3 therefore presents as a low-cost supplementation to improve HIV-associated immunity.

Featured commentary about the PNAS article by Abigail Druck Shudofsky:

Vitamin D Status Alters HIV Infection Response

The Site of Shuitangba (Yunnan, China) Preserves a Unique, Terminal Miocene Fauna

Jablonski, N.G., Su, D.F., Flynn, L.J., Ji, X., Deng, C., Kelley, J., Zhang, Y., Yin, J., You, Y., Yang, X. (2014). The site of Shuitangba (Yunnan, China) preserves a unique, Terminal Miocene fauna. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(5), 1251-1257. doi: 10.1080/02724634.2014.843540

Skin Cancer Was Not a Potent Selective Force in the Evolution of Protective Pigmentation in Early Hominins

Jablonski, N.G., & Chaplin, G. (2014). Skin cancer was not a potent selective force in the evolution of protective pigmentation in early hominins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1789). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0517

Is There a Golden Mean for Sun Exposure?

Jablonski, N.G. (2014). Is there a golden mean for sun exposure? Journal of Internal Medicine, 276(1), 71-73. doi: 10.1111/joim.12248

The Role of Piloerection in Primate Thermoregulation

Chaplin, G., Jablonski, N.G., Sussman, R.W., & Kelley, E.A. (2014). The role of piloerection in primate thermoregulation. Folia Primatologica, 85(1), 1-17. doi: 10.1159/000355007


The insulating properties of the primate integument are influenced by many factors, including piloerection, which raises the hair and insulates the body by creating motionless air near the skin's surface. The involuntary muscles that control piloerection, the musculi arrectores pilorum (MAP), are mostly absent except on the tail in most strepsirhines, and are entirely absent in tarsiers and some lorisids. The absence of piloerection and the reduced effectiveness of pilary insulation in preventing heat loss affected the evolution of behavior and metabolic thermoregulation in these animals. In lemurs, this situation contributed to the use of positional and social behaviors such as sunning and huddling that help maintain thermal homeostasis during day-night and seasonal temperature cycles. It also contributed in many lemurs and lorises to the evolution of a wide variety of activity patterns and energy-conserving metabolic patterns such as cathemerality, daily torpor, and hibernation. The absence of functional MAP in strepsirhines and tarsiers implies the absence of effective piloerection in early primates, and the reacquisition of whole-body MAP in ancestral anthropoids prior to the separation of platyrrhine and catarrhine lineages.

The Evolution of Skin Pigmentation and Hair Texture in People of African Ancestry

Jablonski, N.G., & Chaplin, G. (2014). The evolution of skin pigmentation and hair texture in people of African ancestry. Dermatologic Clinics, 32(2), 113-121. doi:

Key points

  • Variability in skin pigmentation phenotypes in African and African-admixed populations has not been well documented or genetically characterized.
  • Afro-textured hair is a shared characteristic of most African and African-admixed people, and may represent an adaptation to protect the brain against thermal stress.
  • Vitamin D deficiency is a risk for darkly pigmented people because of the natural sunscreening properties of eumelanin and the increased prevalence of indoor living.
  • Use of race categories is ill-advised because of the genetic heterogeneity and socially constructed nature of races.

Juvenile Hominoid Cranium from the Terminal Miocene of Yunnan, China

Ji, X., Jablonski, N. G., et al. (2013). Juvenile hominoid cranium from the terminal Miocene of Yunnan, China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58(31), 3771-3779. doi: 10.1007/s11434-013-6021-x


Fossil apes are known from several late Miocene localities in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, principally from Shihuiba (Lufeng) and the Yuanmou Basin, and represent three species of Lufengpithecus. They mostly comprise large samples of isolated teeth, but there are also several partial or complete adult crania from Shihuiba and a single juvenile cranium from Yuanmou. Here we describe a new, relatively complete and largely undistorted juvenile cranium from the terminal Miocene locality of Shuitangba, also in Yunnan. It is only the second ape juvenile cranium recovered from the Miocene of Eurasia and it is provisionally assigned to the species present at Shihuiba, Lufengpithecus lufengensis. Lufengpithecus has most often been linked to the extant orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus, but recent studies of the crania from Shihuiba and Yuanmou have demonstrated that this is unlikely. The new cranium reinforces the view that Lufengpithecus represents a distinct, late surviving lineage of large apes in the late Miocene of East Asia that does not appear to be closely affiliated with any extant ape lineage. It substantially increases knowledge of cranial morphology in Lufengpithecus and demonstrates that species of this genus represent a morphologically diverse radiation of apes, which is consistent with the dynamic tectonic and biotic milieu of southwestern China in the late Miocene.